Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46(1):93-100.Links
Health implications of milk containing beta-casein with the A2 genetic variant.
Bell SJ, Grochoski GT, Clarke AJ.
Research and Development, Ideasphere, Inc., 56 Amherst Road, Belmont, MA, 02478, USA. Denne e-postadressen er beskyttet mot programmer som samler e-postadresser. Du må aktivere javaskript for å kunne se den.
Milk from dairy cows has long provided a high quality source of protein and selected micronutrients such as calcium to most populations. Recently, a relationship between disease risk and consumption of a specific bovine ss-casein fraction either A1 or A2 genetic variants has been identified. Populations, which consume milk containing high levels of ss-casein A2 variant, have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, consumption of milk with the A2 variant may be associated with less severe symptoms of autism and schizophrenia. The mechanism of action focuses on ss-casein A1 and related forms preferentially that are able to produce a bioactive opioid peptide, ss-casomorphin-7 (ss-CM-7) during digestion. Infants may absorb ss-CM-7 due to an immature gastrointestinal tract. Adults, on the other hand, appear to reap the biological activity locally on the intestinal brush boarder. ss-CM-7 can potentially affect numerous opioid receptors in the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Whether there is a definite health benefit to milk containing the A2 genetic variant is unknown and requires further investigation.
PMID: 16403684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Peptides. 2003 Jun;24(6):937-43.
Relation of beta-casomorphin to apnea in sudden infant death syndrome.
Sun Z, Zhang Z, Wang X, Cade R, Elmir Z, Fregly M.
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Box 100274, 1600 SW Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. Denne e-postadressen er beskyttet mot programmer som samler e-postadresser. Du må aktivere javaskript for å kunne se den.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most common cause of death in infants and its pathogenesis is complex and multifactorial. The aim of this review is to summarize recent novel findings regarding the possible association of beta-casomorphin (beta-CM) to apnea in SIDS, which has not been widely appreciated by pediatricians and scientists. beta-CM is an exogenous bioactive peptide derived from casein, a major protein in milk and milk products, which has opioid activity. Mechanistically, circulation of this peptide into the infant's immature central nervous system might inhibit the respiratory center in the brainstem leading to apnea and death. This paper will review the possible relationship between beta-CM and SIDS in the context of passage of beta-CM through the gastrointestinal tract and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), permeability of the BBB to peptides in infants, and characterization of the casomorphin system in the brain.
PMID: 12948848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Prog Clin Biol Res. 1990;328:327-30.
Beta-endorphin, human caseomorphin and bovine caseomorphin immunoreactivity in CSF in sudden infant death syndrome and controls.
Storm H, Reichelt CL, Rognum TO.
Institute of Pediatric Research, National Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
PMID: 2154787 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Med Hypotheses. 1988 Nov;27(3):181-7.
Opioid peptides from milk as a possible cause of sudden infant death syndrome.
Ramabadran K, Bansinath M.
Department of Anesthesiology, New York University Medical Center, NY 10016.
Milk from breast or baby formula is the exclusive source of nutrition for newborn infants. Short chain opioid peptides such as beta-casomorphins have been isolated from breast milk as well as baby formula. These biologically active peptides are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. In infants predisposed to respiratory apnea because of abnormal autonomic nervous system development and respiratory control mechanisms, opioid peptides derived from milk might be one of the etiological factors for sudden infant death syndrome and near miss sudden infant death syndrome.
PMID: 3062337 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]