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Psykoser/schizofreni

Open Journal of Psychiatry, 2012, 2, 12-20

Genetic and dietary factors related to schizophrenia

Karl L. Reichelt, Michael L. G. Gardner

ABSTRACT

Biochemical, immunological and epidemiological evi- dence increasingly support the suggestion that there is a causal relationship between gluten/gliadin and schi- zophrenia as originally proposed by F. C. Dohan. Furthermore the necessary physiological mechanisms exist to explain a mechanism involving bioactive pep- tides from these proteins, and these show that this mechanism is possible and probable in at least in a substantial subgroup of schizophrenic patients. Evi- dence shows a fairly strong genetic disposition, and it must be recognised that any genetic mechanism must implicate altered chemistry and function of proteins. Evidence supports the likelihood that dietary inter- vention is beneficial for some, and this demands fur- ther investigation. A similar conclusion may apply to autism spectrum conditions.


Published Online January 2012 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=16560&JournalID=603

 


 

Open Journal of Psychiatry, 2012, 2, 220-227

Exorphines in urine from schizoaffective psychotics

Dag Tveiten, Karl L. Reichelt
 
ABSTRACT
Hyperpeptiduria and opioid excess have been re- ported in schizophrenia. According to Prof. Dr. L. Lindström, Sweden opioids may explain the patho- physiology of this syndrome. Therefore it is critical to elucidate the presence and nature of opioids in schi- zophrenia and diagnostic sub groups. First morning urine from untreated schizoaffective patients (ICD-10: F 25.1) was separated on HPLC and peaks that elute where different opioid standards appear, freeze dried, re-dissolved in methanol/water (50/50) and 10mM formic acid. Mass spectrometry and MS/MS or frag- mentation mass spectrometry was performed. We found fragmentation pattern of beta-casomorphin 1 - 3 and 1 - 4 (bovine) identical to synthetic standards from Bachem. The aggregation tendency of peptides was much in evidence. The reported exorphins were found in the urine from 8 of 12 untreated schizoaffec- tive patients.

Published Online July 2012 in SciRes.

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=21332&JournalID=603

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Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009 Feb 26;6(1):10. [Epub ahead of print]
Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literature.

Kraft BD, Westman EC.

ABSTRACT: We report the unexpected resolution of longstanding schizophrenic symptoms after starting a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. After a review of the literature, possible reasons for this include the metabolic consequences from the elimination of gluten from the diet, and the modulation of the disease of schizophrenia at the cellular level.

PMID: 19245705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 


 

Autism, Vol. 3, No. 1, 67-83 (1999)
DOI: 10.1177/1362361399003001006
© 1999 The National Autistic Society, SAGE Publications

ß-Casomorphin Induces Fos-Like Immunoreactivity in Discrete Brain Regions Relevant to Schizophrenia and Autism
Zhongjie Sun - University of Florida, USA

J. Robert Cade -University of Florida, USA
Melvin J. Fregly - University of Florida, USA
R. Malcolm Privette - University of Florida, USA

The induction of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was used to determine the brain localization affected by b-casomorphin-7 (b-CM7). Peripheral administration of human b-CM7 at different doses (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg, IV for 1 hour) to rats induced moderate to strong FLI in discrete brain regions including the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, ventral tegmental and median raphe nucleus, and orbitofrontal, prefrontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and entorhinal cortex. All of the above areas have been shown to be altered either functionally or anatomically in patients with schizophrenia, and most have been shown to be functionally abnormal in autism. Some of these brain areas are originators or components of dopaminergic, serotoninergic and GABA-ergic pathways, suggesting that b-CM7 can affect the function of all of these systems. The role of some other affected areas in emotional and motivated behavior, social adaptation, hallucinations and delusions suggests that b-CM7, which was found in high concentration in the CSF, blood and urine of patients with either schizophrenia or autism, may be relevant to schizophrenia and autism. Induction of FLI in the above brain areas by a moderate dose (10 mg/kg) of b-CM7 was attenuated significantly, or blocked, by pretreatment with naloxone (2 mg/kg, IP). It is concluded that human b-CM7 can cross the blood-brain barrier, activate opioid receptors and affect brain regions similar to those affected by schizophrenia and autism.

[Url til artikkel]

 



Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2006 Feb;113(2):82-90

 

The gluten connection: the association between schizophrenia and celiac disease.
Kalaydjian AE, Eaton W, Cascella N, Fasano A.
Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Denne e-postadressen er beskyttet mot programmer som samler e-postadresser. Du må aktivere javaskript for å kunne se den.

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia affects roughly 1% of the population and is considered one of the top 10 causes of disability worldwide. Given the immense cost to society, successful treatment options are imperative. Based on initial findings, gluten withdrawal may serve as a safe and economical alternative for the reduction of symptoms in a subset of patients. METHOD: A review of the literature relevant to the association between schizophrenia and celiac disease (gluten intolerance) was conducted. RESULTS: A drastic reduction, if not full remission, of schizophrenic symptoms after initiation of gluten withdrawal has been noted in a variety of studies. However, this occurs only in a subset of schizophrenic patients. CONCLUSION: Large-scale epidemiological studies and clinical trials are needed to confirm the association between gluten and schizophrenia, and address the underlying mechanisms by which this association occurs.

PMID: 16423158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;163(3):521-8
Association of schizophrenia and autoimmune diseases: linkage of Danish national registers.
Eaton WW, Byrne M, Ewald H, Mors O, Chen CY, Agerbo E, Mortensen PB.
Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Denne e-postadressen er beskyttet mot programmer som samler e-postadresser. Du må aktivere javaskript for å kunne se den.

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with schizophrenia and their relatives tend to have either higher or lower than expected prevalences of autoimmune disorders, especially rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, autoimmune thyroid diseases, and type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the study was to estimate the association of schizophrenia with these disorders as well as a range of other autoimmune diseases in a single large epidemiologic study. METHOD: The Danish Psychiatric Register, the National Patient Register, and a register with socioeconomic information were linked to form a data file that included all 7,704 persons in Denmark diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1981 to 1998 and their parents along with a sample of matched comparison subjects and their parents. The data linkage required that the autoimmune disease occur before the diagnosis of schizophrenia. RESULTS: A history of any autoimmune disease was associated with a 45% increase in risk for schizophrenia. Nine autoimmune disorders had higher prevalence rates among patients with schizophrenia than among comparison subjects (crude incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.9 to 12.5), and 12 autoimmune diseases had higher prevalence rates among parents of schizophrenia patients than among parents of comparison subjects (adjusted incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.3 to 3.8). Thyrotoxicosis, celiac disease, acquired hemolytic anemia, interstitial cystitis, and Sjogren's syndrome had higher prevalence rates among patients with schizophrenia than among comparison subjects and also among family members of schizophrenia patients than among family members of comparison subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Schizophrenia is associated with a larger range of autoimmune diseases than heretofore suspected. Future research on comorbidity has the potential to advance understanding of pathogenesis of both psychiatric and autoimmune disorders.

PMID: 16513876 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(3):547-52
Gene, gut and schizophrenia: the meeting point for the gene-environment interaction in developing schizophrenia.
Wei J, Hemmings GP.
Schizophrenia Association of Great Britain, Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Bryn Hyfryd, The Crescent, Bangor LL57 2AG, UK. Denne e-postadressen er beskyttet mot programmer som samler e-postadresser. Du må aktivere javaskript for å kunne se den.

Both schizophrenia and celiac disease involve a genetic component. Several lines of evidence have shown a genetic relationship between these two conditions. Celiac disease is characterized by damage to the microscopic finger-like projections called villi, which line the small intestine and play a significant role in digestion, due to an inflammatory condition caused by a reaction to wheat gluten or related rye and barley proteins. Celiac disease represents not only malabsorption leading to a poor nutritional condition but also an alteration of gut permeability. Individuals with a history of a childhood celiac condition have a raised risk of developing schizophrenia. Psychotic symptoms often occur in adult celiac disease. It can be hypothesized that apart from malnutrition, the meeting point for the gene-environment interaction may be an alteration in gut permeability, in which the gut may lose its capacity to block exogenous psychosis-causing substances that may enter the body thus causing the development of schizophrenia and other mental conditions. To support this hypothesis, the conditional test was conducted to look at the combined effect of the CLDN5 gene involved in forming permeability barriers and the DQB1 gene that has been found to be associated with celiac disease. The results demonstrate that these two genes possibly work together in conferring a susceptibility to schizophrenia.

PMID: 15617864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

Psychosomatics. 2004 Jul-Aug;45(4):325-35
Mental disorders in adolescents with celiac disease.
0.    Pynnonen PA, Isometsa ET, Aronen ET, Verkasalo MA, Savilahti E, Aalberg VA.
Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Denne e-postadressen er beskyttet mot programmer som samler e-postadresser. Du må aktivere javaskript for å kunne se den.

A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, hypothetically related to serotonergic dysfunction, has been reported among adults with celiac disease. The authors used semistructured psychiatric interviews and symptom measurement scales to study mental disorders in 29 adolescents with celiac disease and 29 matched comparison subjects. Relative to the comparison subjects, the celiac disease patients had significantly higher lifetime prevalences of major depressive disorder (31% versus 7%) and disruptive behavior disorders (28% versus 3%). In most cases these disorders preceded the diagnosis of celiac disease and its treatment with a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of current mental disorders was similar in both groups. Celiac disease in adolescents is associated with an increased prevalence of depressive and disruptive behavioral disorders, particularly in the phase before diet treatment.

PMID: 15232047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Dec;15(12):1287-92
Affective disorders and quality of life in adult coeliac disease patients on a gluten-free diet.
Fera T, Cascio B, Angelini G, Martini S, Guidetti CS.
Dipartimento di Neuroscienze and Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy.

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric symptoms, common in untreated coeliac disease patients, may improve after gluten withdrawal. AIMS: To estimate the incidence of psychiatric disorders in coeliac disease patients on gluten withdrawal and to evaluate: (1) the psychological weight of a chronic disease that involves a restrictive diet and a limited life style; (2) the acceptance of the disease; (3) the effects of both disease and diet on behaviour and quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three groups of 100 patients (coeliac disease patients, diabetic patients and healthy controls, respectively) were assessed by means of a professional semi-structured diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV criteria. This interview, together with specific psychiatric questionnaires, ruled out axis I or II psychopathological disturbances. RESULTS: The modified Self-rating Depression Scale and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory Y2 scores were significantly higher in both coeliac and diabetic patients than in healthy controls. The duration of gluten restriction was related to significantly higher modified Self-rating Depression Scale scores in patients with a more recent diagnosis. Quality of life was poorer in both coeliac and diabetic patients than in healthy controls and significantly correlated with anxiety. The Illness Behaviour Questionnaire showed a high psychological and somatic perception of illness in both coeliac and diabetic patients. Its subscale scores correlated significantly with anxiety and depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In coeliac disease, affective disorders should be ascribed to difficulties in adjusting to the chronic nature of the disease rather than directly to the disease itself, thus giving an indication for preventive liaison psychiatric interventions.

PMID: 14624151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

J Intern Med. 1997 Nov;242(5):421-3
Schizophrenic symptoms and SPECT abnormalities in a coeliac patient: regression after a gluten-free diet.
De Santis A, Addolorato G, Romito A, Caputo S, Giordano A, Gambassi G, Taranto C, Manna R, Gasbarrini G.
Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.

A 33-year-old patient, with pre-existing diagnosis of 'schizophrenic' disorder, came to our observation for severe diarrhoea and weight loss. Use of single photon emission computed tomography, (99mTc)HMPAO SPECT, demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left frontal brain area, without evidence of structural cerebral abnormalities. Jejunal biopsy showed villous atrophy. Antiendomysial antibodies were present. A gluten-free diet was started, resulting in a disappearence of psychiatric symptoms, and normalization of histological duodenal findings and of (99mTc)HMPAO SPECT pattern. This is the first case in which, in an undiagnosed and untreated coeliac patient with psychiatric manifestations, the (99mTc)HMPAO SPECT demonstrated a dysfunction of frontal cortex disappearing after a gluten-free diet.

PMID: 9408073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

Biol Psychiatry. 1995 Mar 15;37(6):410-3.
Specific IgA antibody increases in schizophrenia.
Reichelt KL, Landmark J.
Department of Pediatric Research, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo, Norway.
IgA antibody levels in serum were examined in two groups of schizophrenic patients. All were diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria. One group of 36 males and 12 females were compared to historical controls. The other group consisted of 13 males off drugs for at least 3 months; these were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. An increase in specific IgA antibodies was found. More schizophrenics than controls showed IgA antibody levels above the upper normal limit to gliadin, beta-lactoglobulin, and casein.

PMID: 7772650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1996 Oct;20(7):1083-114.
Could schizophrenia be reasonably explained by Dohan's hypothesis on genetic interaction with a dietary peptide overload?
Reichelt KL, Seim AR, Reichelt WH.
Institute of Pediatric Research, Univ of Oslo, Rikshopsitalet, Norway.

Dohan has proposed that schizophrenia is a genetic disposition which interacts with an overload of dietary proteins such as casein and gluten or gliadin. 2. A systematic attempt is made to see if this hypothesis is possible faced with aspects of schizophrenia that must be accounted for. 3. The authors conclusion is that it is possible, but more serious work in this field is urgently needed.

PMID: 8938813 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

Psychiatry Res. 1995 Sep 29;58(2):171-6
Decreased urinary peptide excretion in schizophrenic patients after neuroleptic treatment.
Reichelt KL, Teigland-Gjerstad B.
Department of Pediatric Research, University of Oslo, Rikshospitalet, Norway.

Six schizophrenic patients had their urinary peptide levels measured before and after 5 weeks of treatment with neuroleptic medications. For two patients, levels were also measured after a reduction in the neuroleptic dose. Because of the heterogeneity of peptide peaks with the same bioactivity, the overall peptide levels were compared to initial levels. A neuroleptic effect on peptide levels was demonstrated. Several research groups have reported enzyme induction caused by neuroleptics in vivo.

PMID: 8570770 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

Biol Psychiatry. 1995 Mar 15;37(6):410-3
Specific IgA antibody increases in schizophrenia.
0.    Reichelt KL, Landmark J.
Department of Pediatric Research, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo, Norway.

IgA antibody levels in serum were examined in two groups of schizophrenic patients. All were diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria. One group of 36 males and 12 females were compared to historical controls. The other group consisted of 13 males off drugs for at least 3 months; these were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. An increase in specific IgA antibodies was found. More schizophrenics than controls showed IgA antibody levels above the upper normal limit to gliadin, beta-lactoglobulin, and casein.

PMID: 7772650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

J Intern Med. 1997 Nov;242(5):421-3.Links
Schizophrenic symptoms and SPECT abnormalities in a coeliac patient: regression after a gluten-free diet
De Santis A, Addolorato G, Romito A, Caputo S, Giordano A, Gambassi G, Taranto C, Manna R, Gasbarrini G.
Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.

A 33-year-old patient, with pre-existing diagnosis of 'schizophrenic' disorder, came to our observation for severe diarrhoea and weight loss. Use of single photon emission computed tomography, (99mTc)HMPAO SPECT, demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left frontal brain area, without evidence of structural cerebral abnormalities. Jejunal biopsy showed villous atrophy. Antiendomysial antibodies were present. A gluten-free diet was started, resulting in a disappearence of psychiatric symptoms, and normalization of histological duodenal findings and of (99mTc)HMPAO SPECT pattern. This is the first case in which, in an undiagnosed and untreated coeliac patient with psychiatric manifestations, the (99mTc)HMPAO SPECT demonstrated a dysfunction of frontal cortex disappearing after a gluten-free diet.

PMID: 9408073 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


 

"Dietary factors and schizophrenia"
S S Kety, in Clinical Influences on Behavior. Study group on chemical Influences on Behavior (eds. Churchill), London, 76-88, 1970

En vanlig årsak til sinnslidelser ved århundreskiftet var pellagra. Videre ble det ofte funnet tildels alvorlige vitamin og/eller mineralmangler hos institusjonaliserte sch. Man har derfor lett etter dietære årsaker til sch. Av undersøkelser som kan nevnes er

1)Niacinamid og relaterte stoffer -uklare resultater, 2)Askorbinsyre -ingen korrelasjon ble funnet, 3) Megadose vitamin-terapi (Rimlands undersøkelse på autister) bl.a. tilførsel av choline, inositol, B1, B2, B6, biotin. Lovende resultater, men den vitenskapelige  metode kritiseres 4) Gluten-fri diett, lovende og bør undersøkes nærmere 5) Methionine blir funnet å kunne indusere/forsterke psykotiske symptomer hos sch. Årsaksforholdene er uklare.

Forfatteren anser det som mulig at dietære faktorer kan være medvirkende til utv. av sch., men understreker at foreløpige uspesifiserte faktorer fra omgivelsene også er nødvendig for at sykdommen skal bryte ut.

"Aktuelle aspekter i den biologiske skizofreniforskning"
Å Jørgensen og C G Magelund,  Nord Med, 95, 306-309, 1980

Kort og enkel presentasjon av biokjemiske avvik hos sch, kort om neurotransmittere og endorfiner.      

"Exogenous peptides and schizophrenia"
MM Singh and SR Kay, in psuchoendocrine Dysfunction, Plenum Press Med. Books, New York, 1984

Foklarer teoriene bak hvordan opioide peptider kan gi psykiske symptomer og går i detalj inn på alle diettundersøkelser og epidemiologiske studier.

"Nutrion and Psychoses"
A Wunderink, L Pettlinkhuizen and J Bruinvels, Prog Brain Res, 65, 49-57, 1986

Kort innføring i kjente sammenhenger mellom kosthold, vit/min-status og psykoser; gluten-exorfiner, prostaglandiner, pellagra, porfyria, transmethylasjon, endogen syntese av hallusinogener.

"Genetic hypotesis of idiopathic schizophrenia: Its exorphin connection"
F C Dohan, Schizophrenia Bull, 14:4, 489-494, 1988

Kort oversikt over teorier og om hvordan de er testet ut samt noen framtidsvisjoner.

"Kroppens eget morfin kan ge schizofreni"
L H Lindstrõm och L Terenius, Forskning och Framsteg, 7, 14-18, 1988

Skrevet for folk flest, om endorfiner og sch/fødselspsykoser.

 


 

Biol Psychiatry. 1984 Mar;19(3):385-99.Links
Is schizophrenia rare if grain is rare?
Dohan FC, Harper EH, Clark MH, Rodrigue RB, Zigas V.

If, as hypothesized, neuroactive peptides from grain glutens are the major agents evoking schizophrenia in those with the genotype(s), it should be rare if grain is rare. To test this, we analyzed the results of our clinical examinations (e.g., kuru) and observations of anthropologists on peoples consuming little or no grain. Only two overtly insane chronic schizophrenics were found among over 65,000 examined or closely observed adults in remote regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG, 1950-1967) and Malaita , Solomon Islands (1980-1981), and on Yap , Micronesia (1947-1948). In preneuroleptic Europe over 130 would have been expected. When these peoples became partially westernized and consumed wheat, barley beer, and rice, the prevalence reached European levels. Our findings agree with previous epidemiologic and experimental results indicating that grain glutens are harmful to schizophrenics.

PMID: 6609726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 


Diettstudier på psykoser/schizofreni

"Relapsed schizophrenics; more rapid improvement on a milk- and cereal-free diet"
FC Dohan, J Grasberger and F Lowell, Br J Psychiatry, 115, 595-596, 1969

"Relapsed schizoprenics: earlier discharge from the hospital after cereal-free, milk-free diet"
F.C. Dohan and J.C. Grasberger, Am J Psychiatry, 130:6, 685-688, 1973.

Ved innleggelse på lukket avdeling på psyk. sykehus ble mannlige schizofrene gitt enten en g/c-fri diett eller en normal diett med mye gluten. Gruppen som ble gitt g/c-fri diett ble utskrevet mye tidligere enn gruppen som fikk en diett med ekstra gluten. En gruppe ble satt på g/c-fri diett, med gluten tilsatt uten pasienters eller ansettes viten (dobbel blind test). Denne gruppen var innlagt like lenge som gruppen som gikk på en høy-glutenholdig diett.

"Wheat gluten as a pathogenic factor in schizoprenia"
M M Singh and S R Kay, Science, 191, 401-402, 1976

14 sch ble satt på en g/c-fri diett i 2+4 uker, ble deretter blindt gitt g i 4 uker og så 4 nye uker på strikt g/c-fri diett. Pas-gruppen hadde klar bedring på diett, den stoppet opp eller gikk tilbake under g provokasjon men bedringen fortsatte når strikt diett ble gjeninnført. Virkningen av g synes å være mest markert på de dårligste pas.

"Another look at gluten in schizophrenia"
JR Rice, CH Ham and WE Gore, Am J Psychiat, 135, 1147-1148, 1978

"Wheat challenge in schizophrenic patients"
SG Potkin, D Weinberger, J Kleinman, H Nasrallah, DC Luciens and L Bigelow, Am J Psychiat, 138, 1208-1211, 1981

"Effects of gluten in schizophrenics"
LH Storms et al, Arch gen Psychiat, 39, 323-327, 1982

"More on celiac disease as a model for schizophrenia"
F C Dohan, Comment in Biol Psychiat, 18, (5), 561-564, 1983

Dohan svarer på hvorfor og hvordan CD kan brukes som model for sch. Han peker på en rekke likhetstrekk mellom sykdommene og mener de er relatert uten at klassiske tegn til cøliaki er tilsted hos sch. Forekomst av exorfiner i enzymatisk oppløsning av gluten kan forklare psykiske forstyrrelser i begge sykdomsgruppene.

"Schizofren psykosbild avklingade nãr patienten gavs glutenfri kost"
B Jansson, E Krisjansson och L Nilsson, Lãkartidningen, 81, 6, 448-449, 1984

En 20-årig mann ble innlagt for en sch psykose. Han reagerte dårlig på en 2 mnd intensiv antipsykotika beh. Det ble konstatert CD, og han ble satt på gf diett. Kraftig forbedring ble observert etter 3 uker og etter få måneder var alle psykotiske symptomer forsvunnet.

"Statistical power of the controlled research on wheat gluten and schizophrenia"
D S King, Biol Psychiat, 20, 785-787, 1985

En gjennomgang av statistisk metode brukt i evaluering av diettforsøk. Siden bare en undergruppe av sch svarer positivt på diettintervensjoner, må gruppen være stor nok til at man statistisk sett har noen responders i gruppen. King viser at alle negative diettundersøkelser er gjort på grupper der usikkerheten er for stor til at sikre konklusjoner kan trekkes.

"A double-blind gluten free/ gluten load controlled trial in a secure ward population"
 DN Vlissides, A Venulet and FA Jenner, Brit J Psychiat, 148, 447-452, 1986

24 alvorlige psykotiske pas som hadde levd mesteparten av sitt liv i institusjoner ble studert. De ble satt på en 2+6 ukers GF diett og deretter på en 6 ukers gf diett tilsatt skjult gluten. Samtlige pas viste signifikant bedring gjennom alle 14 ukene, noe som ble tilskrevet prosedyren, ikke dietten. 2 paranoïd sch pas som hadde vært syke i 20 år, viste klar beding på diett og tilbakefall når skjult gluten ble tilsatt kosten.

"The effect of gluten-free diet on urinary peptide excretion and clinical state in schizophrenia"
KL Reichelt, E Sagedal, J Landmark, BT Sangvik, O Eggen and H Scott , J Orthomol med, 5, 223-239, 1990

10 mannlige sch pas ble delt inn i to grupper der den ene gruppen gikk 8 uker på gf diett og deretter 8 uker på normalkost og motsatt for den andre gruppen. Pas mentale tilstand ble vurdert blindt av to uavh psykiatre. Det ble målt forhøyede IgA-verdier hos 4/11 pas. Urinmønstre ble målt ved diettstart og etter 16,28 og 56 uker. For den gruppen som etter eget ønske fortsatte dietten ble urinmønstrene normalisert etter 28 uker (for noen først etter 56 uker), og ble igjen avvikende da dietten ble forlatt. For 4 pas ga diett klar bedring, for ytterligere 3 ble registrert en mer uklar bedring(?) og de siste tre fant man ingen registrerbar endring.

"The effect of dialysis and diet in schizophrenia"
R Cade, H Wagemaker, RM Privette, MS Fregly, J Rogers and J Orlando,  Psychiatry: A world perspective, 3, 494-500,  1990

12 sch pas er undersøkt. Fra peptidmønstre er de delt i 3 grupper; I: øket mengde store peptider (>1600 Dalton). Her ble respons bare oppnådd etter lengre tids dialysebeh. med svært porøse membraner. II: øket mengde små (rundt 600 Dalton) peptider. Pas viste rask forbedring ved dialysebeh. Ved over-beh slik at peptidnivåene sank under normalnivået, kom symptomene fram igjen. III: øket mengde både av store og små peptider. Disse pas var vanskelig å beh med dialyse, bare GF diett kunne gi effektiv bedring på lang sikt i denne gruppen.

Kostholdsendringer

Kan hjelpe ved: 

ADHD
Aggresjon
Asperger
Autisme

Depresjon
Diabetes
Dysleksi
Epilepsi
Konsentrasjonsvansker
Magetrøbbel
Multippel Sklerose
Muskelsmerter
Opioide peptider
Parkinson
Psoriasis
Schizofreni
Sengevæting
Stoffskifteproblemer
Utslett

 

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